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The German parliament, the Bundestag , after much controversial debate, finally agreed to comply with the eastern border of the former GDR, also known as the "Oder-Neisse-Line", thus shaping FRG the way it can be found on Europe's map today.
Germany is an economic powerhouse boasting the largest economy of Europe, and is in spite of its relatively small population the second largest country of the world in terms of exports.
The financial centre of Germany and continental Europe is Frankfurt am Main , and it can also be considered one of the most important air traffic hubs in Europe, with Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa known for being not just a carrier, but rather a prestigious brand, though its glamour has faded somewhat during recent years.
Frankfurt features an impressive skyline with many high-rise buildings, quite unusual for Central Europe ; this circumstance has led to the city being nicknamed "Mainhattan".
Germany is a federal republic, consisting of 16 states or German Federal Lands Bundesländer. The federal parliament Bundestag is elected every four years in a fairly complicated system, involving both direct and proportional representation.
The parliament elects the Federal Chancellor Bundeskanzler , currently Angela Merkel in its first session, who serves as the head of the government.
There is no restriction regarding re-election. The 'Bundesländer' are represented at the federal level through the Federal Council Bundesrat.
Many federal laws have to be approved by the council. This can lead to situations where Council and Parliament are blocking each other if they are dominated by different parties.
On the other hand, if both are dominated by the same party with strong party discipline which is usually the case , its leader has the opportunity to rule rather heavy handedly, the only federal power being allowed to intervene being the Federal Constitutional Court Bundesverfassungsgericht.
The formal head of state is the Federal President Bundespräsident , who is not involved in day-to-day politics and has mainly ceremonial and representative duties.
He can also suspend the parliament, but all executive power is vested with the chancellor and the Federal Cabinet Bundesregierung. The President of Germany is elected every 5 years by a specially convened national assembly, and is restricted to serving a maximum of two five year terms.
Due to the proportional voting system, smaller parties are also represented in parliament. Being a federal republic, Germany is very much a decentralised country, which embraces the cultural differences between the regions.
Some travellers will perhaps only think of beer, Lederhosen and Oktoberfest when Germany comes to mind, but Germany's famous alpine and beer culture is mostly centered around Bavaria and Munich.
Here the beer is traditionally served in 1 litre mugs normally not in pubs and restaurants, though. The annual Oktoberfest is Europe's most visited festival and the world's largest fair.
Germany's south-western regions, however, are well known for their wine growing areas e. The fall of the Berlin Wall in and the subsequent German Reunification are the main events of recent German history.
Today most Germans as well as their neighbours support the idea of a peaceful reunified Germany and while the eastern regions still suffer from higher unemployment and of brain drain, the reunification process is overall seen as a success.
October 3rd is celebrated as "German Unification Day". Cars are a symbol of national pride and social status. This quality is matched by Germany's excellent network of roadways including the renowned Autobahn network, which has many sections without speed limits that attract speed hungry drivers.
There are actually speed tourists who come to Germany just to rent an exotic sports car and fly down the autobahn.
Most cities have a vibrant gay and lesbian scene, especially Berlin and Cologne. The Berlin tourism agency and other tourism organisations have started campaigns to attract gay and lesbian travellers to their cities.
In fact, some politicians e. Germans are generally friendly, although the stereotype that they can be stern and cold is sometimes true. Just be polite and proper and you'll be fine.
Almost all outlets use the Schuko plug, most appliances have a thinner but compatible Europlug. Adapters for other plugs are widely available in electronics stores.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of 16 states called "Bundesländer" or shortened to "Länder" in German. Three of the Bundesländer are actually city-states: Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg.
The states can be roughly grouped by geography as listed below. Germany has numerous cities of interest to travellers; here are just ten of the most famous:.
Germany is a member of the Schengen Agreement. There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented this treaty - the European Union except Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom , Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.
Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty.
Please see the article Travel in the Schengen Zone for more information about how the scheme works and what entry requirements are. Canada are exempt from obtaining a visa for Germany but not for any other Schengen country, except Hungary and, for refugees, Slovakia for a maximum stay of 90 days in a day period.
Citizens of Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea and the United States of America are eligible to obtain a residence permit, or Aufenthaltstitel authorising a stay of more than 90 days and permission to work , from the Ausländerbehörde Foreigners' Office after arrival in Germany, but before the end of the initial day period of visa-free entry.
Before obtaining such a residence permit, they are not allowed to work, with the exception some specific occupations like artists, etc.
Honduran, Monegasque, and Sanmarinese nationals can also obtain such a permit, but only if they will not work on the residence permit. Other foreign nationals will need to obtain a visa before if they intend to stay in Germany for longer than the 90 days period, even if they are visa-free for that period for a stay in the Schengen area, or if they intend to work.
Authorized members of the US military need to possess only a copy of their duty orders NATO Travel Order and their ID card to be authorized entry into Germany EU citizens, this including soldiers, are allowed to enter the country in any case.
The passport requirement, though, applies to spouses and dependents of military personnel, and they must obtain a stamp in their passports to show that they are sponsored by a person in Germany under the Status of Forces Agreement.
There are no land border controls, making travel between Germany and other Schengen states easier with the accession of Switzerland to the Schengen area in However, the German federal and state police is known to have plain-clothes officers asking travellers for their ID especially on the border between Bavaria and Austria and and Bavaria and the Czech Republic.
Ethnic profiling is prohibited to those officers, but they are well allowed to pick persons they check on other circumstances general apperance, age, mode and route of travel, type of baggage.
Once you are legal, and cooperate, you normally would not expect more than a check of your personal data against a database, polite thanks, and some wish for a pleasant stay.
If you feel discriminated, you have the possibility to report the incident to the federal anti-discrimination agency.
There are a number of ways to get into Germany. From neighbouring European countries, a drive with the car or a train ride are feasible; visitors from further away will probably be using air travel.
STR they serve some international flights as well. Frankfurt is Germany's main hub - one of Europe's four major hubs - and the destination of most intercontinental flights.
Munich is a growing secondary hub. Travellers can easily fly in from most places of the world and then connect with Germany's biggest and most respected airline Lufthansa , which is a member of the Star Alliance.
The others all feature either a commuter rail station or some sort of connection to the nearest rail station as well as public transport to the central station of the respective cities.
If doing so, be sure to book the train journey like a Lufthansa connecting flight ie in advance together with the flight , otherwise you will be responsible for a missed connection.
Flying can be the cheapest way to get to Germany and from there to other European countries, especially if the flights are booked well in advance.
Before booking a budget flight, compare carefully as their destinations are often a bit off the track and after adding all the baggage fees, taxes, additional bus tickets to get to their airports, you might end up at even higher prices than you would pay for a discounted Lufthansa or Air Berlin ticket.
There are budget flights to almost every city in Europe from Germany. The major budget airlines in Germany are easyJet , Ryanair , germanwings for flights within Germany, too and Wizz Air for flights to Eastern Europe which all offer several connections to many countries throughout Europe.
For budget flights to European holiday destinations, for example round the Mediterranean, Germany's major carriers besides Air Berlin are Condor Thomas Cook also for main tourist destinations throughout the world and TUIfly.
Regular train services connect Germany with all neighbouring countries - most operated by Deutsche Bahn DB. Almost all neighbouring countries especially Switzerland , Poland , Denmark , Czech Republic and Austria and even some non-neighbouring countries eg: They are a worthwhile way to travel - not only for budget travellers although budget airlines might be cheaper or landscape viewers especially the Rhine valley lines from Cologne to Mainz via Koblenz.
Standard rail fares are quite high, but there are a number of special fares and discounts available - see the "Get Around" section for more information.
In particular, the Bahncard reduction applies for the whole journey as long as it starts or ends in Germany. International ferry services exist, notably to Scandinavia.
Some of the most popular connections are listed below:. German transportation runs with German efficiency, and getting around the country is a snap — although you'll need to pay top price for top speed.
The most popular options by far are to rent a car , or take the train. If the train is too expensive for you, travelling by arranged ride-sharing is often a viable alternative in Germany.
Domestic flights are mainly used for business, with the train being a simpler and often but not always cheaper alternative for other travel.
The boom of budget airlines and increased competition has made some flight prices competitive with trains to some major cities. However make sure that you get to the right destination.
Low-cost airlines in particular Ryanair are known for naming small airports in the middle of nowhere by cities km away e.
Germany offers a fast and, if booked in advance, affordable railway system that reaches most parts of the country. Unless you travel by car, rail is likely to be your major mode of transport.
Crossing Germany from Munich in the south to Hamburg in the north will usually take around 6h, while driving by car will take around 8h. Almost all long-distance and many regional trains are operated by Deutsche Bahn "German Rail" , the formerly state-run railway company.
DB's website , available in many languages, is an excellent resource for working out transport options not only in Germany generally all modes except air travel; bus, ship and branch line timetables being incomplete but also pretty much anywhere in Europe train and a few selected long-distance bus routes only.
An interesting gimmick is the carbon dioxide emission comparisons for different train journeys. Top speeds are only reached on newly built or upgraded parts of the network; on "old" tracks the ICE will only go as fast as regular IC trains.
On most main lines you will arrive significantly faster than by car. However when you book the ticket on-line in advance, you can get a considerable discount see Discounts.
The latter connect the larger European cities and are virtually identical to the regular ICs. These trains are also fairly comfortable, even if they lack the high-tech feeling of the ICE.
On the major lines, an ICE or IC train will run each hour or so during the day, and even certain minor cities of touristic importance like Tübingen or Heringsdorf are connected on a daily or weekly basis.
Before you shell out the money for the ICE ticket, you may want to check if it actually makes a significant time difference.
There are also long distance trains operated by other companies than Deutsche Bahn, usually running over secondary routes. These are usually comfortable enough and sometimes considerably cheaper, but most of them stop at almost every station en-route.
In addition to being fast, modern and highly profitable, German railways are not known for delays, trains usually do not wait for one another most local trains normally do for up to 5min so you should not rely on connecting times of less than 15min.
Urban transportation systems are usually ran by local companies that are publicly held: In larger urban areas, the local companies will often form a Verkehrsverbund or VB integrated public transport system: These urban transport networks are often but not always integrated with the DB network and Verkehrsverbund tickets are valid in local trains.
Depending on the connection tickets can be obtained as a "mobile" ticket that can be downloaded to your smartphone app, "online" tickets that can be printed out at home and via mail.
Since you can even show "online" tickets on a notebook or tablet screen if you didn't print them out, something that wasn't allowed before.
Now, if you're travelling on local trains, things can get confusing. The basic unit of confusion is the Verkehrsverbund VB , or "tariff union" , which is basically a region around a large city or sometimes almost the whole Bundesland federal state that has a single tariff system.
Those tariff systems can be totally different from city to city. Any travel within a single Verkehrsverbund is "local" and usually quite cheap; but any travel between Verkehrsverbunde requires either a special within North Rhine-Westphalia or the full DB fare and will usually be considerably more expensive.
The catch is that DB trains often cross between Verkehrsverbunde with no warning at all, and your "local" ticket then stops being valid the instant you cross the invisible line.
With many local machines and old DB machines in the Frankfurt area, figure out the four-digit code for your destination, found on a panel of densely packed print nearby.
Poke the flag button to switch to English, punch in the code for your destination station on the keypad, then hit the appropriate button in the left "adult" row below to pick your ticket.
The first button is always one-way single Einzelfahrausweis. A price will be displayed: For new blue DB machines, select the local tariff union in the top menu, and the rest is easy.
If you buy a local VB ticket, you will usually have to validate it by time stamping it at the bright yellow punch machines located on platforms. If you have no valid ticket or an un-punched ticket, you will be fined as a fare dodger.
Ticket validity varies randomly from one VB to another: Unlimited transfers between trains, buses, etc. Discounts may be given for return trips, and one-day tickets Tageskarte are usually cheaper and much less hassle that single tickets, although zone limits apply to them as well.
You can often pick up brochures attempting to explain all this, usually with helpful maps, and occasionally even in English, at a local Reisezentrum ticket office.
Regional train tickets are point-to-point, with the destinations written on the ticket. They are valid only on trains but in North Rhine-Westphalia , they are also on certain other means of public transport , although for long-distance tickets, you may have the option to add on a local transport ticket at your destination for a few euro extra.
As standard fares are relatively expensive, there is a sometimes confusing set of special promotions and prices the rail companies offer at various times tests showed that even many railway employees at ticket counters failed to find the best bargain.
Your best course of action is to check their website or to ask at a train station or their telephone hotline for current details.
If you search a connection with the on-line timetable , it offers you automatically a most favourable discount for desired journey.
Try several departure times as discount tickets are limited and may be sold out for your initial choice.
If you plan to travel a bit more extensively, a BahnCard or rail pass may be the better choice. If you plan to travel a week or two around Germany, there is a trick with Europa-Spezial that allows you to travel to several places with one ticket for 29Euro or 39Euro, if you book it some days in advance.
Because of international regulations the only on the train booked -validity applies only to the train you cross the border with, but not for local trains used in Germany afterwards.
The ticket itself is valid for two weeks, and you may interrupt your journey as often as you wish. So just find both a town close to the border in a neighbouring country to start, select a destination and book a discounted ticket that includes a stopover after the border and uses only local trains for the rest of the journey.
After reaching that first stopover, you may freely travel on local trains as long as they go into the general direction of your final destination.
Some conductors may be a bit suspicious, but the ticket will clearly indicate that it's valid for two weeks and that for the section where you use local trains the only on the train booked doesn't apply.
Note that this only works when you travel into Germany from another country, not the other way round. BahnCard  is a good choice, if you plan to travel by train a lot.
It's valid for one year from the date of purchase and gives you discounts on all standard tickets. Long-distance BahnCard tickets frequently do include one single journey on public transport in many destinations look out for City ticket.
However, you have to keep in mind that once you sign a contract for the card, they will automatically renew your card at the end of its time period unless you cancel it in writing before the last three months of the card starts.
The DB employees may not tell you about this stipulation when you buy the card, thus there's a petition against this practice online at change.
The BahnCard discount doesn't apply to network tickets , but some transportation networks do offer their own discounts for BahnCard holders.
They are often a cheaper alternative to single or return tickets, because on many shorter relations local trains are not much slower as long-distance trains IC, EC, ICE.
Check the travel time at the on-line timetable and select the Only local transport button. If you need a network ticket for long-distance trains, use some of european rail passes or German Rail Pass.
All network tickets can be purchased on-line and at ticket machines at railway stations. You cannot buy them from the conductor.
Some locals look for other people at stations to share a journey with to reduce costs there is a website for searching for a travelmate.
Some even sell their network ticket for a discount after arriving at their destination to recoup some of their funds. In response, the German Railway now requires you to write your name on the ticket in order to validate it, thus making it harder to sell the ticket to someone else once your journey is over.
However the conductor hardly ever checks your identity. German Rail Pass  allows for unlimited travel throughout Germany in all trains on days within 1 month.
There is an interesting "twin" discount for two people travelling together. The pass is available only for residents outside Europe, Turkey and Russia and you can purchase it on-line at the website above or from travel agencies outside Germany.
Eurail offers a pass for days of travel does not have to be consecutive throughout Germany . In many Verkehrsverbünde , you can carry a bike on a train with normal ticket without supplement at off-peak hours.
Long-distance trains have special section with bike holders. Follow up the bike symbols near the car door. For an almost complete list, see de: Sehenswerte Eisenbahnen in Deutschland.
The turnstiles known from underground rails in London, New York, Paris and many other big cities in the world do not exist in Germany.
This means nothing and noone will tell you your ticket is not valid in the moment you get on the train. On most trains some kind of staff will come around more or less randomly to check you have a proper ticket.
On long distance trains they are easy to spot with their uniforms. In all other trains you are usually in deep trouble if you board with no ticket - unless there is one of the rare onboard ticket vending machines which have to be used immediately after boarding.
Inform whether you have to validate stamp your ticket when boarding the first means of transport at a machine on board or at the platform, or if the ticket is already pre-validated.
If you have to validate it, it is invalid without the validation stamp. If it is pre-validated on purchase, and you use it after the validity period starting with the purchase has elapsed, it will not be valid for your travel, even if you insert it into a validation machine and stamp it that way.
Even more confusing might be that there are transportation companies which use both "systems" at once; whether your ticket is pre-stamped might depend on the machine where you bought it, or on your selection of the ticket type on the machine touchpad e.
Even Germans who travel in a city about which they do not know such details may get confused, so be advised to ask some official staff or at least a local in any case of doubt.
On local trains or S-Bahn anything is possible: There may be uniformed conductors that usually do not sell tickets , inspectors that resemble doormen at a club and also may throw you out or they are simply "stealth" casually dressed "passengers".
The 'stealth'-inspectors should show a ticket inspector ID before starting their checks. Whatever happens, in no case, any ticket inspector may expel unaccompanied kids below 18 from a train.
This applies especially at remote stations during nighttime. If this happens to you r kid call the police! In the Germany liberated the market for the long distance buses.
A law, which was designed to protect the national railway, had previously restricted long distance buses mostly to services from and to Berlin. Since the law was repealed, lots of new bus services have been created and are fighting for their share of the market.
This often means great deals for travellers, even though the pricing can be somewhat confusing at times.
Only time will show which of the you companies survive and how prices will turn out in the long run. The major contenders, some of them just founded in , include:.
The major routes are connected by several companies, partly in a intense competition. Apart from the above mentioned companies, there are often regional operators as well.
The prices tend to vary a lot, comparison websites help to identify the best offers, try busliniensuche. As many companies are relatively new, they don't always have coaches with their own logos painted on them - they often charter buses from other local bus companies.
Also, bus stop are partly in a bad condition or barely noticeable. Be sure to check the exact location of the bus stop in advance. Apart from these, there is a very dense network of regional and local bus lines.
In rural areas, though, many lines run only once per day. Regional and local express bus line designators usually contain the letter s CE local , E regional around Hamburg; in other areas, E is used for special runs , S regional , SB regional and local or X local within Berlin , city bus line designators may contain the letter s BB "Bürgerbus", not integrated within tariff unions , C or O.
Always check the departure boards carefully: Germany has a world-famous network of excellent roads and Autobahnen motorways with no toll or fees for cars trucks have to pay , but gasoline prices are kept high by taxation.
Oddly, normal petrol and "super" is the same price in Germany. There are several smartphone apps for price comparison search for Spritpreis Vergleich.
As a rule of thumb the price drops over the day until around At petrol stations, you have the choice between Diesel, Benzin 91 octane, not very common , Super 95 octane , Super E10 95 octane also, but higher share of biofuel; inquire with car rental or petrol station since it might damage your car and SuperPlus 98 octane or Ultimate octane.
Also, LPG liquefied petroleum gas is available with few problems on highways. Here and there, you might find "Erdgas"; this is compressed natural gas not gasoline.
In Germany, you may first fill up your tank and pay afterwards only if the petrol station is staffed, of course. Some stations will not release the fuel to pump unless you pay first or at least hand over a credit card in advance.
Less expensive are stations announced as "Autohof" at Autobahn exits, which are situated a kilometer or less from the exit and often also provide cheap, mostly low-quality food for professional drivers.
All German airports offer car hire services and most of the main hire firms operate at desk locations. Car hire and pool cars are also available in most cities, and one-way rentals within Germany are generally permitted with the larger chains without an additional fee.
When renting a car, be aware that most cars in Germany have manual gearbox stick-shift , so you might want to ask for a car with an automatic gearbox if you are used to that type.
Drivers with an endorsement in their licence that restricts them to driving automatic transmission vehicles will not be allowed to rent a manual-transmission car.
Most car rentals prohibit having their cars taken to eastern European countries, including Poland and the Czech Republic.
If you plan to visit these countries as well, you might chose to rent your car there, as those limitations do not apply the other way round.
Another great way to get around without your own car is using one of the popular carpool services. You can arrange many connections over their respective websites if you speak some German or have a friend that can help you out.
Making contact is free of charge and getting a lift is often the cheapest way to get around. The two most popular hosts are Mitfahrgelegenheit  and Mitfahrzentrale  , for second one you have to pay an extra charge.
If you have your own car, taking other people is also a great way of saving money and protecting the environment.
Another very good site is  which compares different means of transportation. All foreign licences are accepted for up to six months or 12 months for a temporary stay only , but a translation may be necessary.
If you want to continue driving after this period, you must obtain a German licence. These rules do not apply to driving licences issued in EU member states.
Very often speed limits are enforced by automated speed cameras, and it is illegal to have any "detection" device with you, which includes GPS devices which warn you about static cameras.
An exception to this is if the co-driver uses a GPS-based app blitzer warner. While fines for severe infractions can be substantial, they are usually lower than in most neighboring countries.
If you rent a car, make sure it has a Feinstaubplakette. If you travel in your own car, you can buy your badge for a small fee from vehicle registration offices, technical inspection organizations such as TÜV you can request a badge online or Dekra and many car repair shops.
German campgrounds like most others in Western Europe usually offer a full range of amenities. You always have your own electricity hookup, and water and sewer hookups for each are common,.
Every campground has restrooms and showers as well as kitchens, washing-machines and a spin dryer. It lists almost all campgrounds along with prices, type of location, size, opening hours, amenities, you-name-it.
Since the guide uses lots of symbols which are explained in a number of languages, it is suitable for travellers from abroad, too.
Ride-sharing or pre-arranged hitchiking - MFZ is popular in Germany and the fare for a ride is often much cheaper than the railway fare.
There are several websites which put drivers offering to share their vehicles in touch with passengers willing to share the costs of that journey.
Popular websites are Mitfahrgelegenheit , blablacar , mitfahren. Offline agencies like Citynetz  or ADM  do have offices in major cities, mostly near the city centre or the main railway station.
These offline agencies do charge a commission to the cost for fuel you need to pay for the driver. It is possible to hitchhike in Germany and most Germans speak basic English, so you will be understood if you speak slowly.
Drivers rarely expect you to give them any money for the ride. The first letters of the German number plate before the two seals indicate the city in which the car is registered.
If you know the code for your destination  , it will increase your chances of stopping the right vehicle.
It is illegal to stop on the Autobahn itself, but hitchhiking from service areas or petrol stations is a good way of getting long rides km.
The hard part is getting onto the Autobahn, so it pays off to sleep near the gas stations if you are going far. At the gas stations, you can get a free booklet called Tanken und Rasten with a map of the Autobahn and its gas stations.
When getting a lift, agree with the driver where to get off, and make sure there is a gas station. Try to avoid the Autohof s.
Another form of hitchhiking available in Germany is to share group tickets on regional trains. To hitch a ride with other travelers, first figure out which regional transportation you will need to take in order to reach your destination, and which group discounts are available.
Then you ask people seemingly doing nothing at the ticket machines around 20 minutes before regional trains between major stations depart, they may be willing to share a ticket with you.
Consider finding a group through the "Mitfahrzentrale" or similar services mentioned above in advance, many people list their travel plans online.
The official language of Germany is German. The standard register of German is called "Hochdeutsch" High German. This can be understood by all mother-tongue speakers of German and spoken by almost all when necessary.
However, every region has its own dialect, which might pose a challenge sometimes to those who speak even good German and even to native speakers as well.
This is usually noticeable only in the south not too much in big cities such as Stuttgart or Munich though and rural areas of the north and east. Thus, when travelling in Bavaria, Saxony and Baden, you are stepping foot in places where dialect remains a strong part of the local identity.
The general rule is that south of the Main River divides north Germany from the south in both language and local culture. If you intend address the person you're speaking to in German, refer to the person as "Sie" if you aren't acquainted with that person yet.
All Germans learn English at school, so you should be able to get by with English in most places especially in the former West Germany.
Many people--especially in the tourism industry and higher educated persons--also speak French , Russian or Spanish , but if you can't speak German, English remains your best bet.
Even if one member of the staff doesn't speak English, you are likely to find someone who does and is more than willing to help you.
In the southeastern part of that area, a small Slavic community of 50, also speak the Sorbian language, the least spoken modern Slavic language today, but widely protected from near-extinction since Also on the western coast of Germany there is a small ethnic group speaking its own language, the Frisian people.
There are also some other Frisian communities spread in the north of Lower Saxony for example in Saterland. The Frisian culture is protected by law, due to their status as minority.
If you address a German with English, always first ask "Do you speak English? Germans are less fluent in the English language and often answer questions very briefly one or two words because they feel uncertain how to create a complete English sentence.
This might sometimes appear impolite but is not at all meant this way. Germans less fluent in English also often say "become" instead of "get" because the German word "bekommen" "get" is phonetically so close to "become".
Since it's polite to reply "Bitte" if someone thanks you, Germans may literally translate this with "please" instead of "here you are" or "you're welcome".
Another source of confusion is that Germans call mobile or cellular phones a "Handy" and many of them regard this as an English word.
Germans considering themselves fluent in the English language will often offer to speak English with you if you try to speak German with them.
It's considered by most as a sign of politeness even though it might be annoying for people who want to practice German.
Pointing out that you'll want to try in German is perfectly fine and most people will react very positive or apologize if you do. It is worth noting that English is in the same language family as the German language.
Hence when you read German signs, there are a good number of words that may resemble their English counterparts. While Germany uses the 24 hour format for written times, people very often use 12 hour times in conversations.
Another difference is that when saying the time is In addition, Germans say two-digit numbers "backwards": This becomes especially important when you inquire for prices, although most who speak English with you should use the correct form.
It is still better to double-check what is really meant. When thinking of Germany, beer, lederhosen and Alpine hats quickly come to mind, but these stereotypes mostly relate to Bavarian culture and do not represent Germany as a whole.
Germany is a vast and diverse country with 16 culturally unique states that have only formed a political union since in the modern era, and including the significant parenthesis.
If you're still looking for the cliches, the Romantic Road is a famous scenic route along romantic castles and picturesque villages.
With its fairy tale appearance, the Neuschwanstein Castle could be considered the most iconic of German castles.
The walled city of Rothenburg ob der Tauber has a beautiful mediaeval centre that seems untouched by the passage of time.
Similar typical German towns can be found elsewhere in the country, like Görlitz , Bamberg , Celle , Heidelberg , Erfurt , and Quedlinburg.
Your picture postcard visit to Germany will be complete with a visit to the beer halls of Munich and a peek of the Alps at Garmisch-Partenkirchen.
Germany is a modern industrial nation, and the Wirtschaftswunder is best represented by the industrial heritage of the Ruhr.
Hamburg is another economic powerhouse with the second busiest port of the continent. Frankfurt is the financial centre of Germany, and of Europe as a whole, as it is the base of the European Central Bank.
Its skyline comes close to those found at the other side of the Atlantic. The fashion city of Düsseldorf , media industry of Cologne , and car companies in Stuttgart each represent a flourishing sector of the German economic miracle.
A completely different experience can be found in Berlin , a city unlikely to be found anywhere else on the planet.
While architecturally an odd mismatch of sterilised apartment blocks, post-modernist glass and steel structures, and some historic left-overs, it has a laid-back atmosphere and a culture of internationalism that accepts everyone as a "Berliner".
If you want to see a perfect example of gentrification, visit the formally "hip", now very settled Prenzlauer Berg district.
The Schöningen Spears are 8 wooden throwing spears from the Palaeolithic Age, that were found between and in the open-cast lignite mine, Schöningen , county Helmstedt , Germany, together with approx.
More than , years old they are the oldest completely preserved hunting weapons in the world and they are regarded as the first evidence of the active hunt by Homo heidelbergensis.
These discoveries have permanently changed the picture of the cultural and social development of early man. Due to its size and location in Central Europe, Germany boasts a large variety of different landscapes.
The landscape is very flat and the climate is rough with strong winds and mild, chilly temperatures. Due to the south-easterly winds that press water into the German Bight, tidal variations are exceptionally high, creating the Wadden Sea.
Vast areas of the seabed are uncovered twice a day, allowing one to walk from one of the numerous islands to another. The East Frisian Islands just off the coast are very picturesque, although mostly visited by the Germans themselves.
Favourite white sand resorts along the Baltic Sea include Rügen and Usedom. The central half of Germany is a patchwork of the Central Uplands , hilly rural areas where fields and forests intermix with larger cities.
The Rhine Valley has a very mild, amenable climate and fertile grounds, making it the country's most important area for wine and fruit growing.
While only a small part of the Alps lie in Germany, they are famous for their beauty and the unique Bavarian culture.
Along the country's southwestern border with Switzerland and Austria lies Lake Constance , Germany's largest fresh-water lake.
Germany offers virtually every activity you can imagine. Most Germans are members of a sports club and visit cultural events less often.
Due to the federal structure every region has its own specific activities. Every village has a club and the games are the main social event on weekends.
Participation is strongly encouraged. The German Football Museum in Dortmund presents the history of this. In the winter many people go skiing in the Alps in Bavaria close to Munich.
Almost every middle-size German city has a spa often called Therme with swimming pools, water slides, hot tubs, saunas, steam baths, sun roofs etc.
The sauna areas are usually visited by both genders, and people are nude there. Wearing any clothing, this including swimsuits, is considered not hygienic and is therefore not at all permitted.
Germany has world class opera houses especially Berlin , Bayreuth , and Munich and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra  is known as one of the top three orchestras in the world.
Germany is considered to have the strongest classical music traditions in Europe, with many famous composers such as Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Handel and Wagner originating from Germany.
Several theatres in bigger cities play outstanding classical and contemporary plays. Germany prides itself in the wide variety of cultural events and every city works out a cultural agenda.
Musicals are popular in Germany. Although there are some touring productions from time to time, most shows stay in a specific city for a few years.
Most shows belong to the company called "Stage Entertainment". Rather interestingly, William Shakespeare is adored in Germany like almost nowhere else--the Anglosphere included.
This can be attributed in large part to Goethe, who fell in love with the Bard's works. If your German is up to it or you can find a English performance, seeing a performance can be very interesting.
According to some Germans, Shakespeare is actually improved in translation, as the language used is more contemporary. These 24 countries are: Together, these countries have a population of more than million.
One euro is divided into cents. While each official euro member as well as Monaco, San Marino and Vatican issues its own coins with a unique obverse, the reverse, as well as all bank notes, look the same throughout the eurozone.
Every coin is legal tender in any of the eurozone countries. If you have Deutsche Marks no matter if coins or notes remaining from previous trips, they can still be exchanged free of charge at all branches of the german national bank Bundesbank and sometimes at other banks just ask.
The Bundesbank operates 35 branches in nearly all major cities in Germany. Do not expect anybody to accept foreign currencies or to be willing to exchange currency.
An exception are shops and restaurants at airports and also - more rarely - fast-food restaurants at major train stations.
These will generally accept at least US dollars at a slightly worse exchange rate. If you wish to exchange money, you can do so at most banks, where you can also cash in your traveller's cheques.
Currency exchanges, once a common sight, have all but disappeared since the introduction of the euro. Again, international airports and train stations are an exception to this rule.
Swiss Franc can sometimes be accepted near the Swiss border. Don't be fooled by seeing card terminals in shops or other people paying with cards - these machines may not necessarily be programmed to accept foreign cards, so it is best to inquire or look out for acceptance decals before shopping or fuelling your car all major brand gas stations will accept credit cards.
Hotels, larger retailers, chain gas stations, nationwide companies, many supermarkets and some pharmacies accept credit cards; discount stores or small independent shops tend not to with exceptions.
Some places impose a minimum purchase amount typically 5 or 10 euros for card payments. Most ATMs will allow you to withdraw money with your credit card or foreign debit card, but you'll need to know your card's PIN for that.
Unlike in some other countries, service staff are always paid by the hour albeit not always that well. A tip is therefore mainly a matter of politeness and shows your appreciation.
If you didn't appreciate the service e. The same applies when it is clear that you are on a business trip, and that you get reimbursed only for your expenses indicated on the bill, but not for tips.
Since the introduction of the Euro, a tip Trinkgeld , lit. Nonetheless, service charge is already included in an item's unit price so what you see is what you pay.
Tipping in Germany is usually done by mentioning the total while paying. If you pay by credit or debit card, it is perfectly acceptable to tip by card.
However, the slips which German credit card terminals produce do not contain any extra space for manually writing a tip and a total onto it.
Thus, indicate the total amount you want to pay, this including the tip, before staff type the total amount into the machine.
In common with most other Western European languages, the meanings of points and commas are exactly inverse to the English custom; in German a comma is used to indicate a decimal.
A dot is used to "group" numbers one dot for three digits , so "1. Fuel, sparkling wine, spirits and tobacco are subject to even higher taxes, the first of those excise taxes - the "Branntweinsteuer" spirit tax - first being imposed on Nordhäuser Branntwein the ancestor of Nordhäuser Korn in , the certainly most ridiculous of them - the sparkling wine tax - being introduced by Emperor Wilhelm II to finance the Kiel Canal and his war fleet.
Still, high street prices some of these products are still considerably lower than prices charged at "duty free stores" at airports, or even in the country of origin.
In particular, this applies to wine and whisky. Some German brands of high end goods such as kitchen utensils , stationery , and hiking gear are considerably cheaper than abroad.
VAT is always included by law in an item's price tag except when goods are sold business-to-business only by vendors which only sell to businesses, which may reimburse the VAT paid.
This usually requires you to get a certain "tax-free" certificate from the vendor participating in that scheme.
Such participation is often indicated by a decal at the store entrance. You may not use the item you had bought within the EU before departing.
You would have to present the merchandise together with the certificates to customs at the place e. You will not be harrassed by customs, but expect them to ask for some reasonable proof that you are about to export unused goods which are identical to the ones indicated on the certificates.
Thus, officers might demand physical presentation of the merchandise, to check whether it shows signs of use. It helps to leave price tags on clothing, and not to remove any seals from electronic equipment packaging.
Some proof of identity passport and of your residence outside the EU may also be demanded. If customs are satisfied that you fulfill the criteria, they will endorse your "tax-free" certificates with an export certificate stamp, and you can then follow instructions on the documents, telling how to send in the certificates and how to get the VAT transferred.
Besides this certificate-based procedure, there also do exist other procedures to reimburse the VAT, but those are more complicated.
Many Germans rather look for prices and do not like getting "ripped off" when shopping for food. As a result, the competition between food discounters which might be the cause of this very specific behaviour is exceptionally fierce in fact, WalMart had to withdraw from the German market because it failed at competing on price and results in very low food prices compared to other European countries.
The chains "Aldi", "Lidl", "Penny" and "Netto" are a special type of supermarket sometimes called "Discounter", but generally referred to as "Supermarkt", as well: Their range of products is limited to the necessities of daily life like vegetables, pasta, milk, eggs, convenience foods, toiletries etc.
While quality is generally surprisingly high, do not expect delicatessen or local specialities when you go to shop there. Don't blame discounter personnel for being somewhat harsh; although they are paid slightly better than usual, they have to cope with a rather grim working atmosphere and a significantly higher workload than colleagues in "standard" supermarkets and therefore are certainly not amused about being disturbed in getting their work done.
Beside those major chains, Turkish supermarkets which can be found in townships with predominantly Turkish population can be a worthwhile alternative since they combine the characteristics of discounters low price levels but limited assortment with those of "standard" supermarkets Turkish specialties and usually friendly personnel.
Deposit for beverage containers: Germany has an elaborate and confusing beverage container deposit " Pfand " system. Bottles usually cost between 8 and 25 cents Pfand per bottle depending on their type.
Additional Pfand is due for special carrying baskets matching the bottle measures. The Pfand can be cashed in at any store which sells the type of container you wish to return, often by means of a high-tech bottle reader than spins the bottle, reads the Pfand , and issues a ticket redeemable with the cashier.
Pfand is also usually declared on the price tag of the product. Some contents like wine or drinks not containing carbonic acid do not have to be sold with Pfand.
They may or may not have a label saying pfandfrei deposit-free on them. Reusable bottles are always sold with Pfand because the bottler wants you to bring the bottle back for refilling.
Reusable bottles are taken back, cleaned thoroughly and refilled up to 50 times. The label with the logo on it must remain on the bottle to reclaim your Pfand.
A reusable container that requires Pfand does not always explicitly state that. Instead it may have one of these logos or just read "Mehrwegflasche" reusable bottle or "Mehrweg-Pfandflasche" reusable deposit bottle on it.
Reusable containers are recognized by other means which means the label does not have to stay on the container. There are also a few other instances where Pfand is due, for example for standardized gas containers.
Pfand on glasses, bottles and crockery is also common at discotheques, self-service bars or public events, but usually not at a students' cafeteria.
If you have a container you paid Pfand for and are not planning on taking it back, be a nice person and place it beside a waste bin so someone can take it and bring it back.
Cigarette machines are often dotted around towns and cities be aware you will need an EU driving licence or a debit card with an electronic chip to "unlock" the machine; in restaurants you may ask the waiter for a identification card.
The legal age to buy tobacco and smoke publicly in Germany is Some Germans buy paper and tobacco separately as this is significantly cheaper.
Due to a federal reform, opening hours are set by the states, therefore opening hours vary from state to state. Most states have no more strict opening hours from Monday to Saturday however, you will rarely find 24 hours shops other than at petrol stations the only exceptions are Saarland and Bavaria where stores are only allowed to open and Sachsen Sunday and national holidays is normally closed for shops everywhere in Germany, including pharmacies.
However single pharmacies remain open for emergencies every pharmacy will have a sign telling you which pharmacy is currently open for emergencies.
Information can be obtained here . Shops are allowed to open on Sundays on special occasions called "Verkaufsoffener Sonntag", information on open Sundays may be found here  or here .
Every German city uses these days except Munich. Small shops are often closed If necessary in many big cities you will find a few sometimes more expensive supermarkets with longer opening hours often near the main station.
Bakeries usually offer service on Sunday mornings business hours vary as well. Also most petrol stations have a small shopping area.
In some parts of Germany like Berlin , Cologne , Düsseldorf and the Ruhr area there are cornershops called "Späti" oder "Spätkauf" "latey" , "Kiosk", "Trinkhalle" drinking hall or "Büdchen" little hut that offer newspapers, drinks and at least basic food supplies.
Basic supplies can usually be bought around the clock at gas stations. Gas station owners work around opening hour restrictions by running 7-Eleven style mini marts on their gas station property.
Be aware that prices are usually quite high. Another exception to this law are supermarkets located in touristy areas.
Towns designated as a Kurort health resort are allowed to have their stores open all week during tourist season. Just ask a local for those well-kept secret stores.
In some larger cities such as Leipzig and Frankfurt , this can include an entire shopping mall that happens to be attached to the train station. German food usually sticks to its roots and a typical dish will consist of meat with some form of potatoes and gravy, accompanied by vegetables or salad.
Modern German cuisine has been influenced by other European countries such as Italy and France to become lighter. Director Fritz Lang 's Metropolis is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.
After , many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm rubble film. The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.
One of the most successful German movie series of the s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report Schoolgirl Report. Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films.
The Berlin International Film Festival , known as "Berlinale", awarding the " Golden Bear " and held annually since , is one of the world's leading film festivals.
German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e.
International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.
Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about main types of bread and 1, different types of pastries and rolls Brötchen.
German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.
Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions ,  the national alcoholic drink is beer.
The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.
Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually.
With more than 6. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.
Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.
Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].
The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships , more than any other.
He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.
Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.
German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.
Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.
Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.
For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe. Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm.
East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.
Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.
Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical.
Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic. German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.
Germany portal Europe portal. Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Bundesrepubliek Düütschland Upper Sorbian: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.
There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax and certain other taxes in Bavaria and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.
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Retrieved 15 April Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 4 June Archived from the original on 30 January Retrieved 7 February Library of Congress Federal Research Division.
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